THE MEANINGS OF TEACHERS PROFFESIONS IN ISLAMIC EDUCATIONAL MANAGEMENT
By: Afiful Ikhwan[*]
The long journey of Islamic education hitherto recorded three meanings inherent in the teaching profession, which is as managerial (who/which manages Islamic education), as holder of the mandate (especially from parents) and the work that is professional. Teacher serves as a fiduciary that is an educator who serves the people to lead the learners to be able to find their dignity as humans. In this position the teacher is as a successor to the Islamic prophet struggle (waratsat al-Anbiya'). In his position as professionals, teachers in activities are required to fulfill work duties in accordance with the requirements of professional ethics, obey and adhere to the essential values contained in the Qur'an and Hadits. As compensation from the exercise of duties, teachers are entitled to an award of financial and nonfinancial people or the people who need their services.
Keywords: Professions, Teachers, and Appreciation of Islamic Managerial Education.
Teachers as part of the scientists took over as successor (heir) carried the message of Islam spread by the prophets. As the successor to the prophet, the holy and the mission teachers have a responsibility to develop the potential of people. For that, it requires special skills and a high sense of devotion to carry out the mandate given to him that is to educate.
In the tradition of Islamic education, the teaching profession is a profession related to faith, science and charity are integral. Acts committed teachers have synergy with the confidence and knowledge possessed and taught. Thus, Islam outlined that the teaching profession is a profession eligible Islam that upholds the values of al-Karimah morality and devotion to God Almighty.
The explanation above illustrates that the teaching profession in Islam has its own typical and very interesting to study and discuss. In keeping with that, this paper tries to look beyond the meaning of the teaching profession and the special properties for teachers related to the exercise of the profession as it has been exemplified in the classical Islamic education and Islamic education were associated with management, resulting in output of Islamic education that could color the history resurrection and human civilization.
Teachers and His Profession
Etymologically, "Teacher" in Arabic is often known as "mu'allim" (the learned) or "Mudarris" (those who teach) (Munawwir, 1997: 966). As al-Ghazali in the word "Master" is often used the term mu'allim, Mudarris and al-Muwaddib (Educators), where every word is directed to the person in charge and responsible for the education and teaching activities (Zainuddin, 1991: 50) .
In connection with the entrusted tasks, (Ali, 1999: 93) formulated two meanings contained in the word "Master", that the teacher is defined as persons who carry out the mandate, and second, the work of teachers as professionals.
Definition of teachers as people undertaking more popular in the early period of Islam. More explicitly stated that the teachers are the ones who receive the message of the parents to educate their children. From the statement can be understood that in this period a teacher gives knowledge to the students based on the concept of running a mandate. As the holder of the mandate, the teacher responsible for the mandate entrusted to him, as affirmed in the Qur'an Surah an-Nisa: 58.
While the word "Teachers" is defined as professionals can be found in the phenomenon of Islamic education in the modern progress and during this period, "Master" into a profession that can mean the search for revenue (income). In this context not only undertaking teacher education, but also those who provide themselves as professionals who are willing to accept payment for his duties as a teacher to support and provide for his family.
Professional terms, according to Arifin (1995: 105), derived from the profession, which contains the same meaning as the word occupation or a job that requires skills acquired through education as a specific area of expertise to address the specific employment needs. In general, Sadirman (2001:131) defines a profession as an occupation that requires advanced education in science and technology are used as the basis to be implemented in a variety of worthwhile activities. In its application involves aspects that are more mental than it is manual work. Professional workers always use the techniques and procedures that rests on an intellectual basis to be learned deliberate, planned and then used for the benefit of the public.
Sugmadinata (2000:191) defines indicators profession generally revolve around the following points:
- Functions and social significance,
- Have the skills or expertise,
- Skills / Skills obtained by using the theory and the scientific method,
- In discipline science is based on a clear,
- Education obtained in a certain period of time,
- Application and dissemination of professional values,
- Having a code of ethics,
- Freedom to give judgment in solving problems within the scope of its work,
- It has a professional responsibility and autonomy,
- There was recognition from the public and the reward for the service profession.
In this paper defined the profession an occupation that requires specialized skills, which skills must be acquired through a certain education level a relatively long time and are finally able to categorize continuous Islamic education was then called the Islamic Educational Management. Implementation of professional work serves to address issues for the community and benefit the public interest.
When you understand the above formulation of the profession, means that the need for the teaching profession requires special skills as well the ability of manager in learning activities and the ability of proprietary knowledge that will be given to students.
In Islam, by Abdullah Ulwan, through the profession of the teacher's task is doing is implementing the scientific education to shape the personality and dignity of human emancipation (Ulwan, 1978:1019). In addition, as the holder of the mandate of the parents, which is also the task of Muslim educators in general, which gives education-minded human being (Aly, 1999:95). To implement the profession that al-Nahlawi (1979:154) suggests, teachers should follow the example of the role that has been made by the prophets and their followers, the first task is to study and teach the science of divine (Qur'an 3:79) and develop and cleanse the soul of man (QS 2:129).
In order to perform its teaching profession as well, Islam stressed the need for special properties that must be possessed by the teacher (special description of this is presented in sub c of this writing). On the other hand, if the teacher is recognized as a profession, meaning educators (including the non-Muslim educator) is a person entitled to compensation (compensation) of the work performed and its responsibility. In the tradition of medieval Islamic education, both financial rewards in the form of salary and non-financial such as power and prosperity is something that has been done.
In the early development of Islam who have not seen the material goals of education in the Islamic world as it is known in the modern era. However, due to the social development, and the demand for education is increasing, then it implies that the teacher's role is significant for parents and communities in need of education services in a more programmed. So this kind of social conditions demand professionalism specializing professionalism in education.
As a consequence of this the parents have to provide payment to the teachers to teach and educate the assistance given to their sons and daughters. Reality as is done by the authorities of the palace. Authorities palace provide regular salaries to teachers who teach their children (Ahmed, 1968, 47-48). In this case, in addition to a salary basis, the teachers were also given a place to stay, valet and clothing as used by the authorities of the palace, and even not infrequently the muaddib and mukattib considered part of the royal family (Syalabi, 1973; 232-233).
Regular salary received by teachers (Muaddib and Mukattib example) depends on the type of specialist science they teach. For example, for expert Nahwu paid sixty dirhams, and for science bayan paid sebasar thousand dirham (al-Jumbulati, 1994:20-21). Even according to Al-Jumbulati the early development of Islam, the salary given to teachers is measured by adequacy to eat alone. As a result of the salary received by a variety, such as a piece of cloth, a piece of bread (case teacher named Raqasy). The fact this happened to teachers who teach in incidental (Al-Jumbulati, 1994, 19).
In addition to specially pay attention to muaddib and mukattib, teachers with other designations, such as mudarris, mu'allim, imam, sheikh also given a financial guarantee by society and the state through charitable foundations, such as those conducted by the Caliph al-Ma'mun (Stanton, 1994, 43) and madrasah Nizamiya power during Nizam al-Mulk about 5-6 century H. even today released funding charitable foundation also for madrasah staff, scholarships and other educational infrastructure.
From the above explanation can be understood on the size of the form of financial rewards given to teachers in the tradition of Islamic education, determined by the level and the institution where teaching disciplines taught scientific appreciation of the rulers (government) and society in general. From some of the determinants on the subject, it appears the attention of governments and the existence of waqf institutions as a form of appreciation accumulation government and society is an alternative that is used to support the amount of financial reward received by teachers in the history of Islamic education.
Islam gives great attention to the presence of the teacher, the teacher occupies a distinguished position second only to the prophets. Therefore, it is very reasonable, the existence of teachers in the triumph of Islam in the Middle Ages (in particular) received great attention from the public and the government. The amount of public attention that lived during the time it is because they are a science-loving community. Thus the presence of a teacher is someone who is highly expected.
Form of their attention to the teacher, other than wages, providing shelter and other living facilities are in the form of non-financial in the form of rank. Langgulung (1992:242), describes the tradition of Islam granted the rank based on the principles in accordance with the skill of a person, without any discrimination or not in accordance with his expertise. This opinion is moving from a statement the Prophet Muhammad: "Affairs are given to people who are not experts so watch its destruction" (al-Hadith). Therefore, in the Islamic tradition of awarding rank was very selective and proportionate.
Forms obtained the rank of professor in the tradition of Islamic education is determined by the field-controlled and taught. In line with that in the early development of Islam, has been known to rank as interpreter, muhaddist, jurists. Particularly applicable to teachers who teach at the school, while the progress of Islam in the next decade several indications show the rank in addition to giving directly to the experts, but also given to students who have the intellectual ability and mastery of science, which is almost completed his studies. This pattern is known as naib, mufidz and muidz. Third professionalism has a special duty to perform the assistance and mudarris mu'allim. Naib act as a substitute for mudarris has not been removed and the old mudarris can no longer perform the task, he also replaced mudarris when mudarris unable to attend (Ash'ari, 1994:39). While mufidz and muidz is mudarris aides to facilitate teaching and learning. The difference in the two is that mufidz levels higher than muidz (Maksidi, 1981:195), for mufidz is a senior student repeat what was said by mudarris, while muidz are senior students who assist students who have difficulty juniors (Ash'ari, 1994:77-78).
Application assistance system in madrasah education is as done by mudarris against al-Ghazali before he became mudarris at Madrasah Nizamiya Nasshapur first become mufidz for al-Juwayni (Ash'ari, 1994:58).
Meanwhile, expert teachers are more popular with the rank sheikh (professor). The awarding of the rank sheikh (professor) or a great teacher like that once carried by the prime minister during the reign of Nizam al-Mulk to al-Ghazali for a professor at the University of Baghdad Nizam al-Mulk. The awarding is given to al-Ghazali after he made a big discussion at the Palace of Nizam al-Mulk.
Of the cases described above demonstrate that administration of rank in the tradition of Islamic education is highly selective and strongly based on academic ability and dedication to the advancement of the field of expertise donated it and the betterment of society in general. In addition to gaining academic rank awarded by the scientific community and the state, as described above, the teacher occupies a glorious position in the view of society.
Teacher Professional Attributes in Islamic Education Management
As stated in the previous description, a profession has its own attributes in the form of codes of conduct. The code of ethics must be implemented and adhered to by the person's profession. Among the substances that ethical codes are traits that must be possessed by a professionalism.
In the tradition of Islamic education management, the properties outlined in the code of conduct and a Muslim teacher who had owned it ordained that Islamic values of the Qur'an and Hadith. Al-Ghazali (d. 505 H), one among the Islamic scholars paid great attention to this issue, outlines the eight properties that should be possessed by teachers as described by Ali (1999:97-99) are as follows:
First, teachers should look at the students as their own: love and treat them like their own children. Prophet pointed to his whereabouts in the midst of his companions, saying: "I am for you as parents to their children." (Reported by Abu Dawud, al-Nasa'i Ibn Majah, and Ibn Hibban).
Secondly, in carrying out its duties, the teacher should not expect a reward or praise, but should expect the pleasure of Allah and oriented closer to Him. It is guided by the principle of the prophets (see Surah 11:29).
Third, teachers should take advantage of every opportunity to give advice and guidance to the students that the purpose of studying is to draw closer to God, not to get tenure or worldly pride.
Fourth, the students who behave badly, should teachers wherever possible reprimand by insinuating and affectionate, not to frankly and reproach, reprimand because the latter can make bold students rebelled and intentionally continued to behave badly.
Fifth, the teacher should not fanatical about fosterage field of study, and denounced the field of study that raised another teacher. Instead, it should encourage students to love all areas of study are cared for by other teachers.
Sixth, teachers should pay attention to the development phase of student thinking in order to convey knowledge in accordance with the capacity to think.
Seventh, teachers should pay attention to weak students by giving lessons in an easy and clear, and do not haunt him with the things that can make it difficult and losing the love of learning.
And eighth, teachers should practice the science, and not otherwise act contrary to the teaching of science to students (note QS 2:44).
Eighth formulation properties must be owned by a Muslim teacher illustrates that a teacher in the management that Islam is the one who should have a moral virtue, has a depth of knowledge, pious, have attention to physical and spiritual potential learners, may lead students to love science , and has a sincerity in his education as the foundation of devotion to Allah, and seek His good pleasure.
When linked to the award given to teachers in the form of financial (in the form of salaries and other physical needs) and non-financial (such as promotion or award honors) with the properties it has, of course, the award given to the teacher is not a goal, but more focused to an appreciation of science developed by the teacher, who donated time and energy to teaching and learning, respect for future generations. Appreciation can be used as a motivating factor for teachers to be more vigorous and intense to the development of science and the progress of students.
The amount of attention to the teacher's Islam is in line with the statement of the Prophet that the ink of the scholars is more valuable than the blood of the martyrs (al-hadits).
Islamic teaching profession is an occupation in teaching and learning, where skills should be based on substantial ownership and managerial knowledge to guide the development of students' potentials in order to serve Allah and attain His pleasure.
Appreciation society and government in the form of financial and non-financial the teaching profession in Islam is a form of appreciation of science which was developed by the teacher, who donated time and energy to the development and progress of science learners, and to the future generations.
To be able to perform his profession well in the context of management education to Islam, a Muslim educators are required to have admirable qualities that moral virtue, pious, have attention to physical and spiritual potential learners.
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- Personal Details
1. Name : AFIFUL IKHWAN, M.Pd.I
2. Place & Date of Birth : Jambi, 22 Pebruary 1988
3. Sex : Male
4. Religion : Islam
5. Statue : Maried
6. Lates Education : Post Graduate STAIN Tulungagung
7. Address : Dsn.Jabalan Kel.Jabalsari RT.002/RW.004
Kec. Sumbergempol Kab.Tulungagung
Prov. Jatim – Indonesia KP: 66291
8. Email : firstname.lastname@example.org
- Formal Education
Year of Graduation
Bording School Gontor Ponorogo
MAKN Model Jambi
Strata-1 STAIN Tulungagung
Strata-2 STAIN Tulungagung
Strata-3 UIN Malang
[*] The writer is a doctoral graduate student of UIN Malang. Journal presented in an international seminar in the Annual conference on 1-2 December 2012 at UIN Malang.